Shell Data Processing - tr (translate or delete characters)
tr is a filter program that translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters.
It's part of the Gnu utility.
Taking the case from lower to upper
echo hello world | tr a-z A-Z
echo hello world | tr -d ' '
Translate from EOL Windows to EOL Linux
tr '\r\n' '\n' < input_filename
tr [OPTION]... SET1 [SET2]
-c, -C, --complement use the complement of SET1 -d, --delete delete characters in SET1, do not translate -s, --squeeze-repeats replace each sequence of a repeated character that is listed in the last specified SET, with a single occurrence of that character -t, --truncate-set1 first truncate SET1 to length of SET2 --help display this help and exit --version output version information and exit SETs are specified as strings of characters. Most represent themselves. Interpreted sequences are: \NNN character with octal value NNN (1 to 3 octal digits) \\ backslash \a audible BEL \b backspace \f form feed \n new line \r return \t horizontal tab \v vertical tab CHAR1-CHAR2 all characters from CHAR1 to CHAR2 in ascending order [CHAR*] in SET2, copies of CHAR until length of SET1 [CHAR*REPEAT] REPEAT copies of CHAR, REPEAT octal if starting with 0 [:alnum:] all letters and digits [:alpha:] all letters [:blank:] all horizontal whitespace [:cntrl:] all control characters [:digit:] all digits [:graph:] all printable characters, not including space [:lower:] all lower case letters [:print:] all printable characters, including space [:punct:] all punctuation characters [:space:] all horizontal or vertical whitespace [:upper:] all upper case letters [:xdigit:] all hexadecimal digits [=CHAR=] all characters which are equivalent to CHAR Translation occurs if -d is not given and both SET1 and SET2 appear. -t may be used only when translating. SET2 is extended to length of SET1 by repeating its last character as necessary. Excess characters of SET2 are ignored. Only [:lower:] and [:upper:] are guaranteed to expand in ascending order; used in SET2 while translating, they may only be used in pairs to specify case conversion. -s uses the last specified SET, and occurs after translation or deletion.