Cryptography is the science of cryptographic algorithms (known as Cipher) that implements the following functionalities:



Hashing (Data Integrity and Signature)

Cryptographic algorithms transforms transforms a plaintext into a unique hash:

  • without secret
  • with secret (known as signature)

Anonymity Security : Kerckhoffs Principle

1) A cryptosystem should be secure even if everything about the system, except the secret (private key), is public knowledge.

In designing security systems, it is wise to assume that the details of the cryptographic algorithm are already available to the attacker. This is known as:

Because the algorithms are well known. it's the only the parameter of cipher algorithm that protect the anonymity. This parameter is known as the secret (private key).

An attacker who obtains the secret (key) can :


Alice and Bob are fictional characters commonly used as placeholder names in cryptology

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