# Number, Numeric, Quantity

A number is a mathematical object used to:

Example: When we are interested in the total number of each species of tortoise, or how many individuals there are per square kilometre.

This type of data is called commonly:

• numerical data
• or quantitative data.

The same number may be:

## Why

Number Type Equation they help to solve
Negative number a + x = b, even when a > b
Fractions ax = b, when b is not divisible by a
Reals x² = 2
Complex numbers x² = -1

## Notion

### Number System

Numbers can be classified into set, called number system.

The most common number system (ie number classification) are:

### Numeral System

Numbers can be expressed (ie written) into set, called numeral system (or system of numeration). It is a mathematical notation system for expressing numbers using digits (or other symbols).

Example of numeral system (ie number representation)]]:

### Number Storage

Numbers can be stored in:

However, since division almost immediately introduces infinitely repeating sequences of digits (such as 4/7 in decimal, or 1/10 in binary), the representation would be:

• truncated at some satisfactory size
• or else rational numbers would be used: a large integer for the numerator and for the denominator. But even with the greatest common divisor divided out, arithmetic with rational numbers can become unwieldy very quickly: 1/99 – 1/100 = 1/9900, and if 1/101 is then added the result is 10001/999900.

### Field

A field is a collection of “numbers” with their operator: +, -, *, /

### Discrete / Continous

Quantitative variables can be further categorized as either:

• discrete: those that can only have set, integral values, or discrete variables,
• or continuous: those that can be a range of values, or continuous variables. Quantitative Variables can be a range of values, or continuous variables.

## Documentation / Related

• See java implement of Number: AtomicInteger, AtomicLong, BigDecimal, BigInteger, Byte, Double, DoubleAccumulator, DoubleAdder, Float, Integer, Long, LongAccumulator, LongAdder, Short