Antlr - Getting Started (Hello World)


A getting started page that brings you in the world of Antlr.




The grammar file comes from antlr4 getting-started

Create a grammar file called Hello.g4 and define the grammar called Hello

grammar Hello;     // The name of the grammar is Hello
r  : 'hello' ID ;         // The rule/production r match keyword `hello` followed by the rule `ID`
ID : [a-z]+ ;             // The rule/production `ID` match all lower-case characters
WS : [ \t\r\n]+ -> skip ; // This WS rule (WhiteSpace) skip spaces, tabs, newlines


Generate the lexer and parser

with the antlr command line

cd /temp/hellog4
antlr4 Hello.g4 # Run the tool

Next to the grammar file, you got:

  • the lexer - to create the token
  • the parser - to build the tree
  • the listener - to traverse the tree
ls -A1
  • Compile the java file
    • The cp (class path) option should point to the antlr jar file downloaded during the installation
    • javac is the compiler and is in the bin directory of the jdk (Example: c:\java\jdk1.8.0_231\bin\javac)
javac -cp "C:\antlr\antlr-4.8-complete.jar" Hello*.java # Compile the generated class
  • The following compiled java class file were created
ls -A1 *.class

The idea plugin can also run antlr with the Generate Recognizer command

Parse and print the tree

With the LISP notation

Start grun

grun Hello r -tree


  • Hello is the name of the grammar (ie the file name without the extension)
  • r is the start rule to where to build the tree
  • -tree prints the parse tree in LISP notation.

Enter the text to parse and terminate with an End of File Character

  • Type Ctrl+D (^D) on unix
  • or Ctrl+Z (^Z) on Windows
hello Nico # Type hello + your name
^Z  # End of file (Ctrl+Z)
  • Output
(r hello nico)

With the gui parse tree inspector

With the minimal grun gui parse tree inspector

grun Hello r -gui
hello nicoooo # Type your text to parse
^Z # send an end of file ( Ctrl+Z - windows or Ctrl-Z linux)

With Idea plugin

With the idea plugin:

  • right click on the line of the start rule
  • start to type a text to see the tree

With Java

With all import from org.antlr.v4

public class Hello {

    public static void main(String[] args) {

        // The input
        String input = "hello nico";
        ANTLRInputStream inputStream = new ANTLRInputStream(input);

        // Lexer
        HelloLexer lexer = new HelloLexer(inputStream);

        // Stream of token
        CommonTokenStream commonTokenStream = new CommonTokenStream(lexer);

        // Create the parser
        HelloParser parser = new HelloParser(commonTokenStream);

        // Create the tree from the r parser rule
        ParseTree tree = parser.r();

        // Print the tree
        printNode(tree, 0, Arrays.asList(parser.getRuleNames()));

        // Or with the utility function to print the LISP-style tree
        // equivalent to `grun Hello r --tree`

     * Recursive function to print a node
     * @param node
     * @param level
     * @param ruleNames
    private static void printNode(ParseTree node, int level, List<String> ruleNames) {
        String nodeText = Trees.getNodeText(node, ruleNames);

        // Print
        StringBuilder line = new StringBuilder();
        IntStream.range(0, level).forEach(i -> line.append(" "));
                .append("Level ")
                .append(" - ")

        // Chilrdnre
        if (node instanceof ParserRuleContext) {
            ParserRuleContext parserRuleContext = (ParserRuleContext) node;
            if (parserRuleContext.children != null) {
                for (ParseTree child : parserRuleContext.children) {
                    printNode(child, level + 1, ruleNames);
Level 0 - r
 Level 1 - hello
 Level 1 - nico
  • LISP
(r hello nico)


Can't load Hello as lexer or parser

when starting grun, you may get the following error:

Can't load Hello as lexer or parser

This is because the lexer and parser generated class file are not in the classpath.

For dos, be sure that the doskey has the current directory (ie .;) in the classpath. Example:

doskey grun=java -cp ".;C:\antlr\antlr-4.8-complete.jar" org.antlr.v4.runtime.misc.TestRig $*

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