R - rep (repetition of element)

1 - Usage

rep(x, times = integer vector, length.out = non-negative integer, each = non-negative integer)
# default
rep(x, times = 1, length.out = NA, each = 1)


  • x is an object to replicate (a vector (of any mode including a list) or a factor or (for rep only) a POSIXct or POSIXlt or Date object; or an S4 object containing such an object.
  • times is an non-Negative integer vector giving the number of times to repeat:
    • each element if of length length(x),
    • or to repeat the whole vector if of length 1
  • length.out defines the desired length of the output vector. Other inputs will be coerced to an integer vector and the first element taken. Ignored if NA or invalid.
  • each: non-negative integer. Each element of x is repeated each times.

2 - Example

  • Times 2

rep(1:4, 2)
[1] 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

  • Each 10

rep(letters[1:3], each = 10)
 [1] "a" "a" "a" "a" "a" "a" "a" "a" "a" "a" "b" "b" "b" "b" "b" "b" "b" "b" "b" "b" "c" "c"
[23] "c" "c" "c" "c" "c" "c" "c" "c"

3 - Documentation / Reference


Data Science
Data Analysis
Data Science
Linear Algebra Mathematics

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