Logical Data Modeling - Duplicate


A duplicate happens when in a set two elements have an equivalence relationship that returns true.


  • In the set {1,1,2,3}, 1 is a duplicate
  • The set {1,2,3} has no duplicate

Data Processing Operation

relational operators can create duplicates but no all.

See below:

Operator Symbol Creates Duplicates?
Selection σ No
Projection π Yes
Cross-product × No
Set-difference No
Union Yes
Join No

Powered by ComboStrap