Sh - Backslash Escape Characters (Whitespace, Tabs, Ends, End of Line, Newline) - Non-printing characters

Bash Liste Des Attaques Ovh


Text - Non-printing Character (Tabulation, New Line, ) in bash


Words of the form $'string' are treated specially. The word expands to string, with backslash-escaped characters replaced as specified by the ANSI C standard. Backslash escape sequences, if present, are decoded as follows:

  • \a: alert (bell)
  • \b backspace
  • \e an escape character
  • \f form feed
  • \r carriage return
  • \t horizontal tab
  • \v vertical tab
  • \\: backslash
  • \' single quote
  • \nnn the eight-bit character whose value is the octal value nnn (one to three digits)
  • \xHH: the eight-bit character whose value is the hexadecimal value HH (one or two hex digits)
  • \cx a control-x character

The expanded result is single-quoted, as if the dollar sign had not been present.



var variable=$'TextWithTab\tInBetween'


echo "$variable"


The echo command must have its parameter between parenthesis to show the newlines in a variable

# Variable
echo "$TEST"
# or Text
echo -e "Hello\nNico"

!!!! Bad/wrong !!!!

# Bad
echo $TEST
Hello Nico



To see the backslash character, you need to use the cat command.

echo $'Hello\tWorld\vHello \nHello ' | cat -vte


  • for $'Hello\tWorld\vHello \nHello '
  • the cat options:
    • v: show non-printing
    • T: show tabs
    • E: show ends


Hello^IWorld^KHello $
Hello $


  • ^I represents a horizontal tab
  • ^K represents a vertical tab
  • $ represents an end-of-line


Shell Data Processing - Sed (Stream editor)

echo $'\t' | sed 's/ /·/g;s/\t/→/g;s/\r/§/g;s/$/¶/g'

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