Card Puncher Data Processing


A firmware is any computer program that is tightly linked to hardware such:

  • BIOS,
  • or the control systems of simple devices (such as a microwave oven, remote control, or computer peripheral.). They act here as the device's complete operating system (performing all control, monitoring and data manipulation functions). Firmware on an embedded system may be the only program that will run on the system and provide all of its functions.

Originally, a firmware was a program on the boundary between hardware and software; thus the name firmware.



Firmware is held in non-volatile memory devices such as ROM, EPROM, or flash memory.

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Card Puncher Data Processing
Basic Input/Output System (BIOS)

The is a non-volatile firmware used: to perform hardware initialization during the booting process (power-on startup), and to provide runtime services for operating systems and programs. The BIOS...
Card Puncher Data Processing
Computer - Embedded system - Single Purpose

An embedded system is a single purpose system where the function is built at hardware level whereas with a general purpose system a lot of function can be programmed without modifying its hardware. Therefore,...
Card Puncher Data Processing
Memory - Volatilty / Permanent

When the power is removed, the memory device (storage media) is considered: volatile memory if the data vanishes permanent (non-volatile) memory if the data remain stored When the data is stored...
Application Kernel Assembler Firmware Hardware
OS - Kernel

In computing, the Kernel is the central component of most computer operating systems; it is a bridge between: the applications and the actual data processing done at the hardware level. The kernel...

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