A brief history of data analysis
Fisher proposed a design of experiments along with his statistical tests ANOVA, and Fisher's exact tests.
He's also credited with the quotation, “Correlation does not imply causation.”
In the later 1930s, Demming proposed the idea of quality control using statistical sampling.
Luhn proposed the idea of using indexing and information retrieval methods with text data for the purposes of business intelligence.
John W. Tukey writes in “The Future of Data Analysis”: “For a long time I thought I was a statistician, interested in inferences from the particular to the general. But as I have watched mathematical statistics evolve, I have had cause to wonder and doubt… I have come to feel that my central interest is in data analysis…
Tukey wrote the book, Exploratory Data Analysis. This led to the development of the S and S+ languages, along with a language you've perhaps heard of, R.