A user can connect with different levels of privileges, namely:
- SYSDBA (the root of administrator of the database)
- and SYSOPER.
SYSOPER allows a user to perform basic operational tasks, but without the ability to look at user data.
By default, all members with the SYSDBA privilege have all privileges granted by the SYSOPER privilege.
- Perform STARTUP and SHUTDOWN operations
- CREATE SPFILE
- ALTER DATABASE OPEN/MOUNT/BACKUP
- ALTER DATABASE ARCHIVELOG
- ALTER DATABASE RECOVER (Complete recovery only. Any form of incomplete recovery, such as UNTIL TIME|CHANGE|CANCEL|CONTROLFILE requires connecting as SYSDBA.)
- Includes the RESTRICTED SESSION privilege